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Miracles from Chimayo

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Trauma

Signs and Symptoms and Risk Scores

Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder generally fall into three medical categories:  reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and increased arousal.  (Foa and Meadows, 1997, p. 449-480).

acute, chronic stress
avoiding feelings and thoughts
chest pain
chronic or acute musculoskeletal, neurological involvement, or respiratory
combat stress
complex post traumatic stress disorder
crying easily
distrust of others
elevated epinephrine levels
elevated norepinephrine levels
flashbacks, recurring fears
frightening dreams
gastrointestinal (GI) distress
grief, loss
headache, migraine
immune system problems or impact
impaired concentration
intrusive memories and feelings
lowered cortisol levels
memory lapse or memory disturbances
muscle tension, body armoring
perception that the future is shortened
physical symptoms, or general discomfort in other body areas
possible systemic fungal, or medical mimic, other overlapping or comorbid conditions
problems remaining employed
problems with alcohol abuse
problems with detachment and estrangement
psychological amnesia
reaction to and avoidance of events that remind the person of the original trauma
sleep problems
startle response
survivor guilt
thinking of attack before possibly being attacked
touchiness, irritability
uncontrollable aggression

SOURCES:  (Anderson and Grunert, 1997, p. 39-42), (Blanchard, Kolb, Prins, Gates, and McCoy, 1991), (Brende, 1982, p. 352-360), (Davidson, Smith, and Kudler, 1989, p. 337-339), (Foa and Meadows, 1997, p. 449-480), (Heim, Ehlert, Hanker, and Hellhammer, 1998), (Mason, Giller, Kosten, Ostroff, and Podd, 1986, p. 148), (McFarlane, Atchison, Rafalowicz, and Papay, 1994, p. 717-721), (Shalev and Rogel-Fuchs, 1993, p. 414), (Sorrentino and Remmert, 2017, p. 760, table for PTSD signs, symptoms), (Yehuda, Southwick, Nussbaum, Wahby, Giller, and Mason, 1990).

Anderson, R.C., and Grunert, B.K.  1997.  A cognitive behavioral approach to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder after work-related trauma.  Professional Safety, Volume 42, Number 11, Pages 39-42.
Blanchard, E.B., Kolb, L.C., Prins, A., Gates, S., and McCoy, G.  1991.  Changes in plasma norepinephrine to combat-related stimuli among Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.  The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, June, Volume 179, Number 6, Pages 371-373.
Brende, J.O.  1982.  Electrodermal responses in posttraumatic syndromes, a pilot study of cerebral hemisphere functioning in Vietnam veterans.  The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, June, Volume 170, Number 6, Pages 352-361.
Davidson, J., Smith, R., and Kudler, H.  1989.  Validity and reliability of the DSM-III criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, experience with a structured interview.  The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, June, Volume 177, Number 6, Pages 336-341.
Foa, E.B. and Meadows, E.A.  1997.  Psychosocial treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder, a critical review.  Annual Review of Psychology, February, Volume 48, Pages 449-480.
Heim, C., Ehlert, U., Hanker, J., and Hellhammer, D.H.  1998.  Abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder and alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with chronic pelvic pain.  Psychosomatic Medicine, May-June, Volume 60, Number 3, Pages 309-318.
Mason, J.W., Giller, E.L., Kosten, T.R., Ostroff, R.B., and Podd, L.  1986.  Urinary free-cortisol levels in posttraumatic stress disorder patients.  The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, March, Volume 174, Number 3, Pages 145-149.
McFarlane, Alexander C., Atchison, M., Rafalowicz, E., and Papay, P.  1994.  Physical symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder.  Journal of Psychosomatic Research, October, Volume 38, Number 7, Pages 715-726.
Shalev, A.Y., and Rogel-Fuchs, Y.  1993.  Psychophysiology of the posttraumatic stress disorder, from sulfur fumes to behavioral genetics.  Psychosomatic Medicine, September-October, Volume 55, Number 5, Pages 413-423.
Sorrentino, Sheila A., and Leighann N. Remmert.  2017.  Mosby's Textbook for Nursing Assistants.  Saint Louis, Missouri, Elsevier.  ISBN  978-0-323-31974-4.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  610.730698, MOSBY. -- Page 760, (table), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Signs and Symptoms.
Yehuda, R., Southwick, S., Nussbaum, G., Wahby, V., Giller, E., and Mason, J.  1990.  Low urinary cortisol excretion in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.  The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, June, Volume 178, Number 6, Pages 366-369.


Acute Stress Disorder Scale (self-report)
Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS)
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)
Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5)
Horowitz Impact of Event Scale
Impact of Event Scale
Life Change Events
Mississippi PTSD Scale (M-PTSD)
New York PTSD Risk Score (NYPRS)
Penn Inventory
Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ)
Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS)
PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C)
PTSD Diagnostic Scale (PDS)
PTSD Interview (PTSD-I)
PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (PSS-I)
PTSD Symptom Scale-Self Report (PSS-SR)
Revised Impact of Events Scale (RIES)
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID)
Structured Interview for PTSD (SI-PTSD)

ARTICLE:  Boscarino, J.A., H.L. Kirchner, S.N. Hoffman, and P.M. Erlich.  2013.  Predicting PTSD using the New York Risk Score with genotype data, potential clinical and research opportunities.  Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, April, Volume 9, Page 517-527.
ARTICLE:  Hall, James C., Laura Jobson, and Peter E. Langdon.  2014.  Measuring symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in people with intellectual disabilities, the development and psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale-Intellectual Disabilities (IES-IDs).  British Journal of Clinical Psychology, September, Volume 53, Number 3, Pages 315-332.
ARTICLE:  Horowitz, Mardi, Wilner, Nancy, and Alvarez, William.  1979.  Impact of Event Scale, a measure of subjective stress.  Psychosomatic Medicine, May, Volume 41, Number 3, Pages 209-218.
ARTICLE:  Penk, Walter E., and Irving M. Allen.  1991.  Clinical assessment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among American minorities who served in Vietnam.  Journal of Traumatic Stress, January, Volume 4, Number 1, Pages 41-66.
ARTICLE:  Shawn P. Cahill, and Kristin Pontoski.  2005.  Post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder I, their nature and assessment considerations.  Psychiatry, April, Volume 2, Number 4, Pages 14-25.
ARTICLE:  Sundin, E.C., and M.J. Horowitz.  2003.  Horowitzs Impact of Event Scale evaluation of 20 years of use.  Psychosomatic Medicine, September-October, Volume 65, Number 5, Page 870-876.
ARTICLE:  Verlinden, Eva, Els P. M. Meijel, Brent C. Opmeer, Renee Beer, Carlijn Roos, Iva A. E. Bicanic, Francien Lamers-Winkelman, Miranda Olff, Frits Boer, and Ramon J. L. Lindauer.  2014.  Characteristics of the Childrens Revised Impact of Event Scale in a clinically referred Dutch sample.  Journal of Traumatic Stress, June, Volume 27, Number 3, Pages 338-344.
Beck, J. Gayle, and Denise M. Sloan.  2012.  The Oxford Handbook of Traumatic Stress Disorders.  Oxford, U.K., Oxford University Press, Inc.  ISBN  978-0-19-539906-6.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.8521, BECK.
Blanchard, Edward B., and Edward J. Hickling.  1997.  After the Crash, Assessment and Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors.  Washington, D.C., American Psychological Association.  ISBN  1557984247.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.8521, BLANCHARD.
Holmes, Thomas H., and Ella M. David.  1984.  Life Change Events Research, 1966-1978, An Annotated Bibliography of the Periodical Literature.  New York, New York, Praeger.  ISBN  0275911926.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  016.616071, HOLMES.
Horowitz, Mardi J., Nancy Wilner, and William Alvarez.  1979.  Impact of Event Scale, A Measure of Subjective Stress.  Emmitsburg, Maryland, National Emergency Training Center.  OCLC  503390175.
Tehrani, Noreen.  2002.  Workplace Trauma, Concepts, Assessment and Interventions.  Nottingham, U.K., University of Nottingham.  OCLC  59274409.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.8521, TEHRANI.
Wilson, John P., and Catherine So-kum Tang.  2007.  Cross-Cultural Assessment of Psychological Trauma and PTSD.  New York, New York, Springer.  ISBN  9780387709901.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.8521, WILSON.
Wilson, John P., and Terence Martin Keane.  2004.  Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD.  New York, New York, Guilford Press.  ISBN  1593850352.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.85, WILSON.
Zalaquett, Carlos P., and Richard J. Wood.  1997.  Evaluating Stress, A Book of Resources. Lanham, Maryland, Scarecrow Press.  ISBN  0810832313.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  155.9042, EVALUATING.

ARTICLE:  Goldsmith, Marsha F.  2002.  Walking in beauty at Sage Memorial Hospital, Ganado, Arizona.  JAMA, July, Volume 288, Number 1, Pages 29-34.
ARTICLE:  Lewy, Alfred J., Thomas A. Wehr, Frederick K. Goodwin, David A. Newsome, and Norman E. Rosenthal.  1981.  Manic depressive patients may be supersensitive to light.  The Lancet, February 14, Volume 317, Number 8216, Pages 383-384.
ARTICLE:  Mareel, Marc.  2004.  Molecular cell biology and cancer metastasis, an interview with Garth Nicolson by Marc Mareel.  International Journal of Developmental Biology, Volume 48, Numbers 5, 6, Pages 355-363.
ARTICLE:  Markus, C. Rob, Berend Olivier, and Edward H.F. de Haan.  2002.  Whey protein rich in a-lactalbumin increases the ratio of plasma tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids and improves cognitive performance in stress-vulnerable subjects.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, June 1, Volume 75, Number 6, Pages 1051-1056, Archive
ARTICLE:  Nicolson, Garth L., and Richard Ngwenya.  2001.  Dietary considerations for patients with chronic illnesses and multiple chronic infections, a brief outline of eighteen dietary steps to better health.  Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, Volume 219, Page 62-65, Archive
ARTICLE:  Shenkin, A., M. Neuhauser, J. Bergstrom, L. Chao, E. Vinnars, J. Larsson, S.O. Liljedahl, B. Schildt, and P. Furst.  1980.  Biochemical changes associated with severe trauma.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, October 1, Volume 33, Number 10, Pages 2119-2127.
Bennington, James L., M.D., editor.  1984.  Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology.  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, W.B. Saunders Company.  ISBN  0-7216-1714-X.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.07560321, SAUNDERS.
Cannon, Walter Bradford, M.D.  1923.  Traumatic Shock.  New York, New York, D. Appleton and Company.  OCLC  7030498.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  617.21, CANNON.
Cannon, Walter Bradford, M.D.  1939.  The Wisdom of the Body.  New York, New York, W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.  OCLC  879040223.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  612, CANNON.
Edelson, Stephen, and Deborah R. Mitchell.  2003.  What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Autoimmune Disorders, The Revolutionary Drug-Free Treatments for Thyroid Disease, Lupus, MS, IBD, Chronic Fatigue, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Other Diseases.  New York, New York, Time Warner.  ISBN  0446679240.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.978, EDELSON.
Gale Research Company, and Margaret Fisk.  1977.  Encyclopedia of Associations.  Detroit, Michigan, Gale Research Co.  ISBN  0810301334. PUBLIC LIBRARY  REFERENCE, 061, ENCYCLOPEDIA.
Gershon, Michael D.  1999.  The Second Brain, A Groundbreaking New Understanding of Nervous Disorders of the Stomach and Intestine.  New York, New York, HarperPerennial.  ISBN  9780060930721.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.33, GERSHON.
Martirosyan, Danik M., and Garth L. Nicolson.  2011.  Functional Food Components in Health and Disease, Science and Practice.  Seattle, Washington, CreateSpace.  ISBN  1463746369.
Mellody, Pia, and Andrea Wells Miller.  1989.  Breaking Free, A Recovery Workbook for Facing Codependence.  San Francisco, California, Harper and Row.  ISBN  0062505904.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.86, MELLODY.
Murray, Michael T., N.D.   1998.  5-HTP, The Natural Way to Overcome Depression, Obesity, and Insomnia (or 5-Hydroxytryptophan).  New York, New York, Bantam Books.  ISBN  0553107844.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  615, MURRAY.
Murray, Michael T., N.D., and Joseph E. Pizzorno, N.D.  2012.  The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine.  New York, New York, Atria Books.  ISBN  9781451687347.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  615.53503, MURRAY.
Pall, Martin Lawrence.  2007.  Explaining Unexplained Illnesses, Disease Paradigm for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Fibromyalgia, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Gulf War Syndrome, and Others.  New York, New York, Harrington Park Press.  ISBN  978-0-7890-2388-9.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.0478, PALL.
Schiraldi, Glenn R.  2009.  The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook.  New York, New York, McGraw Hill.  ISBN  9780071614948.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.8521, SCHIRALDI.
Taber, Clarence Wilbur, and Donald Venes, M.D., editor.  2005.  Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary.  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, F.A. Davis Company.  ISBN  0-8036-1209-5.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  REFERENCE, 610.3, TABER. -- Pages 2581-2788, Nursing Appendix.
Taylor, Ellis R., Captain (MC), Department of Aviation Medicine.  1958.  Migraine in Its Aeromedical Aspects (July 1958).  Randolph AFB, Texas, Air University, School of Aviation Medicine, USAF.  OCLC  761003031.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS. -- HathiTrust
Warburg, Otto Heinrich, M.D., and Frank Dickens.  1930.  The Metabolism of Tumours, Investigations from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology, Berlin-Dahlem.  London, U.K., Constable and Co., Ltd.  OCLC  14737479.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.992, WARBURG.
Warburg, Otto Heinrich, M.D.  1949.  Heavy Metal Prosthetic Groups and Enzyme Action.  Oxford, U.K., Clarendon Press.  OCLC  566251.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  612.22, WARBURG.
Warburg, Otto Heinrich, M.D., and Dean Burk.  1953.  Cell Chemistry, A Collection of Papers Dedicated to Otto Warburg on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday.  New York, New York, Elsevier.  OCLC  53616786.   PUBLIC LIBRARY  574.19, BURK.
Warburg, Otto Heinrich, M.D.  1962.  New Methods of Cell Physiology Applied to Cancer, Photosynthesis, and Mechanism of X-ray Action, Developed 1945-1961.  Stuttgart, Thieme.  OCLC  614195738.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  574.87, WARBURG.
Warburg, Otto Heinrich, M.D.  1969.  The Prime Cause and Prevention of Cancer.  Wurzburg, K. Triltsch.  OCLC 524684.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.994, WARBURG.
Warburg, Otto Heinrich, M.D., and Brian Peskin.  2006.  Cancer, Its Cause and Cure, The Long-Lost Cancer Discovery of Otto Warburg, with a State-of-the-Art Nutritional Program Targeted for Prevention and Inhibition of Cancer.  Houston, Texas, Pinnacle Press.  ISBN  0977639207.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.99406, PESKIN.
Werbach, Melvyn R., M.D.  1986.  Third Line Medicine, Modern Treatment for Persistent Symptoms.  New York, New York, Arkana.  ISBN  1850630410.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  615.5, WERBACH.
Werbach, Melvyn R., M.D.  1991.  Nutritional Influences on Illness, A Sourcebook of Clinical Research.  Tarzana, California, Third Line Press.  ISBN  0961855029.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  REFERENCE, 641.39, WERBACH.
Werbach, Melvyn R., M.D.  1993.  Healing Through Nutrition, A Natural Approach to Treating Illness with Diet and Nutrients.  London, U.K., Thorsons.  ISBN  0722529414.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  615.854, WERBACH.
Werbach, Melvyn R., M.D.  1993.  Healing Through Nutrition, A Natural Approach to Treating 50 Common Illnesses with Diet and Nutrients.  New York, New York, HarperCollins Publishers.  ISBN  0062700332.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  615.854, WERBACH.
Werbach, Melvyn R., M.D.  1997.  Foundations of Nutritional Medicine, A Sourcebook of Clinical Research.  Tarzana, California, Third Line Press.  ISBN  0961855061.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.3, WERBACH.
Werbach, Melvyn R., M.D.  2002.  Case Studies in Natural Medicine.  Tarzana, California, Third Line Press.  ISBN  1891710028.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  615.5, WERBACH.
Werbach, Melvyn R., M.D., and Jeffrey Moss, D.D.S.  1999.  Textbook of Nutritional Medicine.  Tarzana, California, Third Line Press.  ISBN  0961855096.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  615.8, WERBACH.
Werbach, Melvyn R., M.D., and Michael T. Murray, N.D.  1994.  Botanical Influences on Illness, A Sourcebook of Clinical Research.  Tarzana, California, Third Line Press.  ISBN  0961855045.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  615, WERBACH.

Adams, Raymond D., Maurice Victor, and Allan H. Ropper.  1997.  Principles of Neurology.  New York, New York, McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division.  ISBN  9780070674394.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.8, ADAMS.
Page 313, Aura (overlapping), in epilepsy, seizure episodes, post-traumatic, temporal patterns, nocturnal epilepsy.

Bennington, James L., M.D., editor.  1984.  Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology.  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, W.B. Saunders Company.  ISBN  0-7216-1714-X.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.07560321, SAUNDERS.
Aura, Page 153.
Candida/yeast, Pages 248, 1615.
Catecholamine, Pages 265, 266.
Epinephrine, Pages 530, 531.
Fungal, Fungus, Pages 615, 618.
Headache, Migraine, Pages 688, 689, A headache characterized by recurrent throbbing pain, sometimes restricted to one side, with or without associated visual, psychologic, or gastrointestinal symptoms...Classic migraine is preceded by an aura, e.g., disturbances of vision, weakness, dizziness, confusion, or numbness and tingling of the lips, face, and hands.  The headache itself may be accompanied by sleep disturbances, nausea, and vomiting, (and) it is often restricted to one side of the head and can last for up to several days at a time...(V)asodilation and excessive pulsation of branches of the external carotid artery occur as the headache begins...Headache, Vascular, A headache caused by abnormal vasodilation and characterized by pain that is acute in onset and throbbing in quality.  Migraine and cluster headaches are two common types.  Vascular headaches are associated with changes in circulating levels of such vasoactive substances as norepinephrine, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), prostaglandins, bradykinin, and histamine.  Cranial vasodilation can also accompany systemic infection, fever, hypertension...drug(s), and ingestion of foods rich in tyramine, monosodium glutamate, and nitrates.
Hydrate, Hydration, Page 742.
Stress, Page 1440.
Trauma, Page 1520.
Vasodilation, Vasodilator, Page 1574.

Cannon, Walter Bradford, M.D.  1923.  Traumatic Shock.  New York, New York, D. Appleton and Company.  OCLC  7030498.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  617.21, CANNON.
Page 53, Chapter 8, The Reduction of the Alkali Reserve.  In 1910 Yandell Henderson pointed out that, in the absence of an adequate supply of oxygen, the development of acid substances in the tissues might be expected, in consequence of the partial asphyxia.  Later, George Washington Crile, M.D., and his co-workers reported results which indicated that a condition of acidosis is present in various clinical states, including shock.  And in 1917, during a study of the toxemia of gas-gangrene, Almroth E. Wright, M.D., observed a reduction of the alkalinity of the bl. serum as determined by titration with acid to a certain end point.  Patients suffering from gas-gangrene have many of the symptoms of shock, and Wright argued that the acidemia, as he called it, of this condition was the cause of these symptoms. -- Archive.org, https://archive.org/details/traumaticshock00cann

Emerson, Charles Phillips, M.D., and Jane Elizabeth Taylor.  1946.  Essentials of Medicine.  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, J.B. Lippincott Company.  OCLC  1072113713.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  610.2, EMERSON.
Pages 387, 388, 389, 659, 660, Migraine...is featured by headache, which occurs periodically and paroxysmally.  Between attacks, the sufferer is completely symptom-free.  The headache is often preceded by prodromal symptoms, or an aura, (and) the pain tends to involve half the head, (and) there are frequently associated disturbances, nervous, gastrointestinal or psychic, and following each attack, there may be temporary depression...In over one half of all cases (of migraine) there is a family history of migraine, or of some disorder definitely allergic in character, such as urticaria (hives), hay fever or asthma.  Many are of the opinion that it is related to epilepsy.  The actual mechanism of the attack appears to be a temporary vascular disturbance in the brain...In some cases (migraines) are preceded hours before by some prodromal symptoms, such as drowsiness, mental and physical hyperactivity, (and) in others, immediately by an aura.  The most common aura is a cloudy area (scotoma), usually to one side, in the field of vision.  This soon becomes a spot of scintillating light flashing in zigzag fashion, and after from 5 to 20 minutes fades away, ushering in the headache.  The pain, seldom bilateral, may remain local or spread over half the head...Usually after from a few hours to one or two days it gradually fades away, but it may stop suddenly, in some patients after an attack of vomiting...Among motor disturbances which frequently appear as part of migraine attacks are aphasia, diplopia, ptosis, paresis (usually of the ocular muscles alone, but sometimes of half the face and also occasionally of an arm or leg) and ataxia.  Among sensory features are numbness of an arm, cutaneous hypersensitivity and neuralgia of the head.  Among vasomotor features are vascular spasm (which explains white migraine, with paleness, dryness and coldness of the skin over half the face or the entire face), and vascular paralysis (which explains red migraine).  Some temporary psychic disturbance would seem to be part of every migraine attack, mental sluggishness, psychic depression, amnesia, marked by change of personality, a phobia, hallucinations of sight and hearing...Severe attacks of migraine may be followed by euphoria, polyuria, exhaustion or drowsiness, which often last several days...Ophthalmoplegic migraine is the name given by Charcot to attacks of migraine with, in addition to the usual features, hemianopsia, paresis or paralysis of one or more of the eye muscles, and distortions of vision...The patient can lessen greatly the frequency of his attacks by keeping himself in good physical condition, living a well-ordered temperate life with regular vacations, avoiding dietary excesses and emotional stress.

Scott, Joan, and Andrea Harrison.  2006.  Spa, the Official Guide to Spa Therapy at Levels 2 and 3.  London, U.K., Thomson.  ISBN  978-1-84480-312-5.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  646.75, SCOTT.
Pages 4-10, History of Spas and Spa Treatments.
1918, Individuals wounded in the First World War were treated in spas at Bath, Buxton, Cheltenham and Harrogate.  The conditions treated were varied, such as shell shock, war wounds, and muscle and joint injuries.

Taylor, Ellis R., Captain (MC), Department of Aviation Medicine.  1958.  Migraine in Its Aeromedical Aspects (July 1958).  Randolph AFB, Texas, Air University, School of Aviation Medicine, USAF.  OCLC  761003031.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS. -- HathiTrust
Page 1, Basic Description, Migraine is classically characterized by headache which is usually unilateral, clearly paroxysmal, and associated with various disturbances involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, special sensory, and central nervous systems.  Among the more important of these symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, irritability, photophobia, scotoma, hemianopsia, aphasia, hemiparesis, hemianesthesia, and syncope...Between attacks the person is usually hale and hearty.
Page 2, Etiology, Allergy to specific foods has been implicated as a cause of migraine...Anxiety, exhaustion, and other emotional stresses are frequently associated with the presence or absence of attacks.
Page 3, The Acute Attack, The prodrome, when it occurs, may consist of one or more symptoms such as hemiparesis, hemiplegia, hemianesthesia, paresthesias (even to the contralateral foot), aphasia, anomia, severe vertigo, syncope, and profound mood changes (for example, mounting anxiety, euphoria, drowsiness, wakefulness, depression, or hunger).  Frequently there is a very dramatic visual symptomatology, with scintillating scotomata, homonymous hemianopsia, visual blurring, or quadrantic field defects, all of which are usually contralateral to the impending headache.  These symptoms are all usually brief, although in occasional cases they may persist for several hours.  If the prodrome is of the usual short duration, it generally terminates before the onset of the headache.
Pages 3, 4, The headache begins as a deep, diffuse, throbbing ache, usually temporal, orbital, or frontal, although it can localize to any area of the head, face, or neck...The usual headache is unilateral, although the site of pain may shift from side to side in successive attacks, occasionally the headache is bilateral...The headache usually lasts four to six hours, although it can range from minutes to days in duration.
Page 4, Mechanism of Preheadache and Headache Phenomena, Preheadache symptoms are due to cerebral vasoconstriction in the area of localization, such as scotomata being due to occipital cortical ischemia.  The pain of the headache is due to dilation and distention of relaxed cranial arteries, primarily the branches of the external carotid.
Page 5, Association with Related Syndromes, Certain symptoms of decompression sickness are much more common in migraineurs.
Page 6, Recurrent headache, usually unilateral..associated temporary visual disorders preceding the headache...gastrointestinal symptoms...(and) symptoms such as paresthesias, speech disorders, vertigo, sweating, and other transient neurologic and vascular disorders.  These are less frequent components of migraine.
Page 11, If the patient has discomfort which he knows leads to an attack...relax by going to bed in a darkened room.  He can relax further by taking a prolonged hot bath.

Pall, Martin Lawrence.  2007.  Explaining Unexplained Illnesses, Disease Paradigm for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Fibromyalgia, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Gulf War Syndrome, and Others.  New York, New York, Harrington Park Press.  ISBN  978-0-7890-2388-9.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616.0478, PALL.
Page ii, Martin L. Pall, PhD, is Professor of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences at Washington State University in Pullman.
Pages 27, 28, 46, 47, There are several well-accepted diseases that often occur along with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), fibromyalgia (FM), and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) including asthma, migraine headache, tinnitus, and autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. These are all said to be comorbid conditions with the multisystem illnesses, because people with these four illnesses have high probabilities of also being diagnosed with these diseases.
Page 29, (P)athophysiological roles, that is roles that are damaging to the body.
Pages 49-68, Chapter 3, Symptoms and Signs
Page 49, Seventeen distinct symptoms and signs are shared by at least two, and in most cases all four, of the multisystem illnesses (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), Fibromyalgia (FM), and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
Page 49, It is difficult to see how the complexities of these multisystem illnesses could be explained as being due to anything other than aberrations in their underlying biochemistry.
Page 51, The following are symptoms or signs that are in common among these multisystem illnesses.
Pages 51, 52, 62, 63, 64, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, immune system dysfunction, inflammatory cytokines, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction, anxiety, depression, learning or memory, headache or joint or muscle dysfunction, fatigue, sleep, circulatory, irritable bowel syndrome/leaky gut, food allergies, food intolerances.
Page 52, 331, My goal here is to take the various elements in our NO/ONOO cycle mechanism - nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, oxidative stress, cytoplasmic calcium, inflammatory cytokines, vanilloid receptor activity, and NMDA receptor activity - and show how one or more of them may be responsible for each of these symptoms. (NMDA, N-methyl-D-asparate).
Page 67, The various well-accepted diseases that are comorbid with these multisystem illnesses are all inflammatory in nature.
Pages 265-316, Chapter 15, Therapy (supplements, vitamins, nutrition).
Page 266, (T)hese diseases may be effectively treated by down-regulating NO/ONOO cycle biochemistry.
Page 267, Two recent reviews of "alternative" treatments for CFS discuss quite a number of nutritional supplements that may be viewed as down-regulating the NO/ONOO cycle (Alan C. Logan, N.D., and Cathy Wong, N.D., 2001, Archive, and Melvyn R. Werbach, M.D., 2000, Archive).
Page 267, (W)ould suggest is (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) underlying biochemistry.
Page 268, Many sufferers from all four of these diseases (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), Fibromyalgia (FM), and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have food allergies. (Also, monosodium glutamate, MSG, and aspartame impact health).
Page 279, Reductive stress...can also be caused by oxygen deprivation of tissues, where there is insufficient oxygen to oxidize the NADH effectively.
Pages 327-437, Bibliographic References.
Pall, Martin L., Townsend Letter, February/March 2010, Archive

Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20150807002225/http://www.ncai.org/policy-research-center/initiatives/Urquhart_Native_Veterans_and_PTSD.pdf
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20140622111045/http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ana/resource/native-american-veterans-storytelling-for-healing-0?page=all
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20150807002424/http://www.pathintl.org/images/pdf/conferences/national/presentations%20for%20web/2011/Veterans-Horses-PTSD-an-Equine-Specialist-Perspective.pdf
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20150316032336/http://www.operationwearehere.com/EquineTherapy.html
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20150807002635/http://www.nchpad.org/Directories/Programs/8479/Hozhoni~Therapeutic~Horseback~Riding~at~Sage~Memorial~Hospital
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20150807002829/http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/06/health/womenshealth/06MILL.html
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20150420123626/http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2014/05/26/healing-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-native-medicine-155032
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20170115024253/https://www.va.gov/health/newsfeatures/2014/September/Reining-In-PTSD-With-Equestrian-Therapy.asp
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20150628023521/http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2014/12/11/traditional-over-conventional-therapies-when-it-comes-native-vets-and-ptsd-158227
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20070710060556/http://www.navajosage.org/hozhonihorseback.html

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