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Body Water Percentage and Hydration

Alpert, Arlene, Margrit Altenburg, and Milady Publishing Company.  2004.  Milady's Standard Textbook of Cosmetology.  Clifton Park, New York, Thomson Delmar Learning.  ISBN  1-56253-880-2.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  646.72, MILADY.
Page 624, Water and the Skin.  There is one essential nutrient no person can live without, and that is water.  In order to function properly, the body and skin both rely heavily on the benefits of water.  Water composes 50 to 70 percent of the body's weight.  Drinking pure water is essential to the health of the skin and body because it sustains the health of the cells, aids in the elimination of toxins and waste, helps regulate the body's temperature, and aids in proper digestion.

Balch, James F., M.D., and Phyllis A. Balch.  1990.  Prescription for Nutritional Healing.  Garden City Park, New York, Avery Publishing Group, Inc.  ISBN  0-89529-429-X.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  615.8, BALCH.
Page 24, Water, The human body is composed of approximately 70 percent water.

Burich, Stephen John, D.C.  1920.  A Text Book on Chiropractic Chemistry.  Davenport, Iowa, Stephen John Burich, D.C.  OCLC  224382589.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  615.82, BURICH, HathiTrust
Page 241, Composition of the Human Body, The living human body is composed of about 35 to 40 percent of solids and about 60 to 65 percent of water...The following outline will answer approximately for the composition, Water 65 percent, Protein Substance 15 percent.
Page 241, Elemental composition of the body (table with Element, Percent Amount, Occurrence),
Oxygen, 66.0 percent, In water of the body, fats, proteins.
Carbon, 17.5 percent, Fats, proteins and compounds produced by the body.
Hydrogen, 10.2 percent, Water, fats, proteins, products of metabolism.
Nitrogen, 2.4 percent, Mainly in proteins.
Page 245, Water exists in the human body to the extent of 65 percent.

Capobianco, Anna T., Sister M. Maristella Gillis, Sister M. Joel Jacobi, and Sister M. Almira Szpak.  1959.  Fluid and Electrolyte Balance, A Teaching Unit, Developed by Graduate Students, The Catholic University of America, School of Nursing Education.  New York, New York, National League for Nursing.  OCLC  1018083.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  610.73, CAPOBIANCO, HathiTrust
Page 3, Definitions, BODY FLUID is the composition of water and salts which are inorganic or mineral constituents of the body.  Sixty to 70 percent of the body weight is water.
Pages 11-15, Bibliography.

Elkinton, Joseph Russell, M.D., and Thaddeus S. Danowski, M.D.  1955.  The Body Fluids, Basic Physiology and Practical Therapeutics.  Baltimore, Maryland, The Williams and Wilkins Company.  OCLC  974100512.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  616, ELKINTON, HathiTrust
Page 6, The magnitude of the total body water is approximately 50 to 65 per cent of the body weight.

Emsley, John.  2002.  Nature's Building Blocks, An A-Z Guide to the Elements.  Oxford, U.K., Oxford University Press.  ISBN  0-19-850341-5.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  546, EMSLEY.
Page 184, (W)ater makes up around 65 percent of the body's weight.
Page 184, Hydrogen in the human body, total amount in body (is) about 7 kilograms.
Page 297, Oxygen in the human body, total amount in body (is) approx. 43 kilograms (60 percent of the total weight).

Gray, Henry, and T. Pickering Pick.  1977.  Gray's Anatomy.  New York, New York, Gramercy Books.  ISBN  0-517-22365-1.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  REFERENCE, 611, GRAY, HathiTrust (1924)
Page 1118, (Nervous Tissue), Chemical Composition, The amount of water in nervous tissue varies with the situation.  Thus in the gray matter of the cerebrum it constitutes about 83 per cent, in the white matter from the same region about 70 per cent, while in the peripheral nerves, such as the sciatic, it may fall to 60 per cent.

Kimber, Diana Clifford.  1898.  Text-Book of Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses.  New York, New York, Macmillan and Company.  OCLC  22898586.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  REFERENCE, 611, KIMBER, HathiTrust
Page 149, Next to air, water is the most necessary principle of life.  It forms about seventy per cent of the entire bodily weight.

Melloni, June L.  2004.  Melloni's Pocket Medical Dictionary, Illustrated.  New York, New York, Parthenon Publishing Group.  ISBN  1-84214-051-5.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  610.3, MELLONI.
Page 520, total body water (TBW), The total water content of the adult human body, equal to 50 percent to 70 percent of the body weight.

Mosby, Inc.  2002.  Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary.  Saint Louis, Missouri, Mosby.  ISBN  0-323-01430-5.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  610.3, MOSBY.
Page 1825, water (H2O), (Anglo-Saxon waeter), a chemical compound, one molecule of which contains one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen.  Almost three quarters of the earth's surface is covered by water.  Essential to life as it exists on this planet, water makes up more than 70 percent of living things.  Pure water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius) and boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius) at sea level.

Murray, Michael T., N.D., and Joseph E. Pizzorno, N.D.  1998.  Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine.  Rocklin, California, Prima Publishing.  ISBN  0-7615-1157-1.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  REFERENCE, 615.5, MURRAY.
Page 60, (W)ater is the most plentiful substance in our body, as it constitutes over sixty percent of our body weight.

Solomon, Steven.  2010.  Water, The Epic Struggle for Wealth, Power, and Civilization.  New York, New York, Harper Collins Publishers.  ISBN  978-0-06-054830-8.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  553.7, SOLOMON.
Page 9, The Indispensable Resource, Earth has aptly been called the water planet.  It is, like ourselves, 70 percent water.

Statland, Harry, M.D.  1954.  Fluid and Electrolytes in Practice.  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, J.B. Lippincott Company.  OCLC  1338343.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  612.0155, STATLAND, HathiTrust
Page 7, Total body fluid, 56 to 60 percent of body weight.

Stwertka, Albert.  1996.  A Guide to the Elements.  New York, New York, Oxford University Press.  ISBN  0195080831.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  541.2, STWERTKA.
Page 16-17, Hydrogen is the simplest of all the atoms.  It consists of nothing more than a single proton, which serves as its nucleus, circled by a single electron, it makes up an astonishing 93 percent of all the atoms in the universe, the combination of hydrogen and oxygen also produces water.  It is this reaction that gave birth to the name of hydrogen, which is derived from the Greek words hydro, or water, and genes, or creator, the most common compound of hydrogen is water.  In the creation of this compound, two atoms of hydrogen combine with one atom of oxygen to form the familiar water molecule H2O.
Page 232, 1766--Hydrogen discovered by Henry Cavendish.

Taber, Clarence Wilbur.  1937.  Taber's Digest of Medical Terms, Medicine, Surgery, Nursing, Dietetics, Physical Therapy.  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, F.A. Davis Company.  OCLC  894750964.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  610.3, TABER, HathiTrust
Page 524, water, H2O, hydrogen and oxygen, a tasteless, clear, odorless fluid, constituting between 75 percent and 90 percent of all tissues.

Waugh, Anne, and Allison Grant.  2006.  Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness.  London, U.K., Churchill Livingstone.  ISBN  978-0-443-10101-4.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  612, WAUGH.
Page 27, The total body water in adults of average build is about 60 percent of body weight.

Weston, Trevor, M.D.  1985-1995.  Know Your Body, The Atlas of Anatomy.  Berkeley, California, Ulysses Press.  ISBN  1569750211.  PUBLIC LIBRARY  611, KNOW.
Page 21, Homeostasis.  The body is made up of approximately 70 per cent water, with certain tissues--such as the grey matter in the brain--containing up to 85 per cent.

Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20150402205118/http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002471.htm
Water makes up more than two-thirds of the weight of the human body.

Archive, https://web.archive.org/web/20131223083332/http://www.jbc.org/content/158/3/625.full.pdf+html
Archive, https://web.archive.org/web/20150702025921/http://www.jbc.org/content/158/3/625.full.pdf
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20150425164026/http://water.usgs.gov/edu/propertyyou.html
Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20150406141804/https://water.usgs.gov/edu/waterproperties.html
U.S.G.S. Water Science School
(T)he brain and heart are composed of 73 percent water, and the lungs are about 83 percent water. The skin contains 64 percent water, muscles and kidneys are 79 percent, and even the bones are watery: 31 percent.
Mitchell, H.H., Hamilton, T.S., Steggerda, F.R., and Bean, H.W.  1945.  The chemical composition of the adult human body and its bearing on the biochemistry of growth.  Journal of Biological Chemistry, Volume 158, Pages 625-637.

Archive:  https://web.archive.org/web/20131106124608/http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/422896/human-nutrition/250633/Body-mass-body-fat-and-body-water
The body of a healthy lean man is composed of roughly 62 percent water.

Archive, https://web.archive.org/web/20160521132331/https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Barry_Popkin/publication/45277340_Water_hydration_and_health/links/54c7b3710cf289f0cecd96d4.pdf
Popkin, Barry M., D'Anci, Kristen E., and Rosenberg, Irwin H.  2010.  Water, hydration, and health.  Nutrition Reviews, August, Volume 68, Number 8, Pages 439-458.

Archive, https://web.archive.org/web/20160418170030/https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composition_of_the_human_body
The adult male human body is approximately 57 percent water, almost 99 percent of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.
Archive, https://web.archive.org/web/20160521153226/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water
The human body contains from 55 percent to 78 percent water.

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